Brain Computer Interface (BCI)

Electroencephalogram is a powerful non-invasive tool widely used in both medical diagnosis and neurobiological research because it provides high temporal resolution in milliseconds which directly reflects the dynamics of the generating cell assemblies, and it is the only brain imaging modality that does not require the head/body to be fixed. However, the lack of availability of EEG monitoring system capable of high-definition recording, online signal processing and artifact cancellation, without use of conductive gels BCIapplied to the scalp, has long thwarted the applications of EEG monitoring in the workplaces. Recently, we have collaborated with leading experts in electrical and neural engineering at Brain Research Center, directed by Dr. Chin-Teng Lin, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan to design, fabricate and test dry biosensors and miniaturized bio-amp, ADC and wireless circuits which allows assessment of brain activities of participants actively performing ordinary tasks in natural body positions and situations within a real operational environment. The acquired EEG signals are transmitted wirelessly to mobile devices (e.g. cell-phones and tablets). The cell-phones and Tablets can also programed to process and display the EEG signals in near-real time. We expect this mobile & wireless EEG/BCI technology will have disruptive future impacts on clinical research and practice in neurology, psychiatry, gerontology, and rehabilitation medicine.

Figure (at right) shows a photo of our 16-channel mobile & wireless EEG system that incorporates novel dry spring-loaded probe electrodes that do not require any skin preparation or conductive pastes and miniaturized battery-powered bioamps, filters, analog-to-digital converters and wireless telemetry circuits to enable imaging of participants actively performing ordinary tasks in natural body positions and situations in operational environments.



  1. Wang, Y., Jung, T-P., A Collaborative Brain-Computer Interface for Improving Human Performance., PLoS ONE, 6(5): e20422. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0020422, 2011. 

  2. Wang, Y-T., Wang, Y., Jung, T-P., A Cell-Phone Based Brain-Computer Interface for Communication in Daily Life, Journal of Neural Engineering, 8(2), 2011.

  3. Wang, Y., Wang, Y-T., Jung, T-P., Visual stimulus design for a high-rate SSVEP BCI, IET Electronics Letters, 46(15): 1057–8, 2010.

  4. Lin, Y-P, Duann, J-R, Chen, J-H, Jung, T-P. Electroencephalographic Dynamics of Musical Emotion Perception Revealed by Independent Spectral Components,NeuroReport, 21(6):410-415, 2010.

  5. Lin, Y-P, Wang, C-H, Jung, T-P, Wu, T-L, Jeng, S-K, Duann, J-R, and Chen, J-H. EEG-based Emotion Recognition in Music Listening, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 57(7), 1798–1806, 2010.

  6. Chen Y-C, Duann J-R, Chuang S-W, Lin C-L, Ko, L-W, Jung T-P, Lin, C-T. Spatial and Temporal EEG Dynamics of Motion-sickness, NeuroImage, 49:2862-70, 2010.

  7. Ko, L-W., Tsai, I-L., Yang, F-S., Chung, J-F., Lu, S-W., Jung, T-P., and Lin, C-T., "Real-Time Embedded EEG-Based Brain-Computer Interface," Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Advances in Neuro-Information Processing, 1038-45, 2009.

  8. Huang, R-S., Jung, T-P., Makeig, S. "Tonic Changes in EEG Power Spectra during Simulated Driving," Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Foundations of Augmented Cognition. Neuroergonomics and Operational Neuroscience, 394-403, 2009.
  9. Ko, L-W, Lin, C-T.,, Pal, N.R., Chuang, C-Y., Jung, T-P., Chao, C-F., Liang, S-F., "EEG-based Subject- and Session-independent Drowsiness Detection: An Unsupervised Approach," EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing, 2008.
  10. Lin, C-T., Ko, L-W, Chiou, J-C, Duann, J-R., Chiu, T-W., Huang, R-S., Liang, S-F, Jung, T-P., A noninvasive prosthetic platform using mobile & wireless EEG,Proceedings of the IEEE, 96(7):1167-83, 2008.
  11. Huang, R-S, Jung, T-P., Delorme A, Makeig, S. Tonic and phasic electroencephalographic dynamics during continuous compensatory tracking ,NeuroImaging, 39:1896-1909, 2008.
  12. Tsai, Y.F., Viirre, E., Strychacz, C., Chase, B, and Jung, T-P., Task Performance and Eye Activity Relating to Cognitive Workload, Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 78(5):B176-85, 2007.
  13. Lin, C-T., Ko, L-W., Chung, I-F., Huang, T-Y., Chen, Y-C., Jung, T-P., and Liang, S-F, Adaptive EEG-based Alertness Estimation System by Using ICA-based Fuzzy Neural Networks,, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, 53(11): 2469-76, 2006.
  14. Lin, C-T., Wu, R-C, Liang, S-F, and Huang, T-Y. Chao, W-H. Chen, Y-J., Jung, T-P., EEG-based Drowsiness Estimation for Safety Driving Using Independent Component Analysis,, IEEE Transactions on Circuit and System, 52(12):2726-38, 2005.
  15. Lin, C-T., Wu, R-C, Jung, T-P., Liang, S-F, and Huang, T-Y. Estimating Driving Performance Based on EEG Spectrum Analysis , EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing 19: 3165-74, 2005.
  16. Liang, S.F., Lin, C-T, Wu, R.C, Chen, Y-C, Huang, T.Y. and Jung, T-P, Monitoring Driver's Alertness based on the Driving Performance Estimation and the EEG Power Spectrum , Proc of the 27th Int'l Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Shanghai, 2005.
  17. Huang, R-S. Jung, T-P and Makeig, S. Analyzing Event-Related Brain Dynamics in Continuous Compensatory Tracking Tasks , Proc of the 27th Int'l Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Shanghai, 2005.
  18. Van Orden K., Limbert W., Makeig S., and Jung T-P, Eye Activity Correlates of Workload during a Visualspatial Memory Task, Human Factors, 43(1):111-21, 2001.
  19. Makeig S, Jung T-P, and Sejnowski TJ, " Awareness during drowsiness: Dynamics and electrophysiological correlates", Can J Exp Psychol., 54(4): 266-73, 2000.
  20. Jung T-P, Makeig S, Lee T-W, McKeown M.J., Brown G., Bell, A.J. and Sejnowski TJ, "Independent Component Analysis of Biomedical Signals," The 2nd Int'l Workshop on Independent Component Analysis and Signal Separation, 633-44, 2000.
  21. Makeig S, Enghoff S, Jung T-P, and Sejnowski TJ, "A Natural Basis for Efficient Brain-Actuated Control", IEEE Trans Rehab Eng, 8:208-11. 2000.
  22. Orden K, Jung T-P, and Makeig S, "Combined eye activity measures accurately estimate changes in sustained visual task performance," Biological Psychology, 52(3):221-40, 2000.
  23. Jung, T-P, Makeig, S, Stensmo, M, and Sejnowski, TJ, "Estimating alertness from the EEG power spectrum," IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 44(1), 60-69, 1997.
  24. Makeig, S and Jung, T-P, "Tonic, phasic and transient EEG correlates of auditory awareness in drowsiness," Cogn Brain Res 4, 15-25, 1996.
  25. Makeig, S, Jung, T-P, and Sejnowski, TJ, "Using feedforward neural network to monitor alertness from changes in EEG correlation and coherence," Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 8, 931-937, 1996.